VI.-PABGANA SA'DABAU. THE pargana of SaMabad is bounded by the districts of Aligarh and Agra to the north and south, Eta to the east, and the Mathura pargana of Maha- ban to the west. It has a population of 89,217 and an area of 115,498 acres, divided into 131 separate estates, of which 52 are held by sole proprietors and the remainder by communities of shareholders. Though water is ordinarily found only at the considerable depth of SO feet below the surface and is often brackish, most of the land is of excellent quality, yielding a good return on every species of agricultural produce; barley, cotton, jodr, and avhar being the principal crops, with a considerable amount also of hemp and indigo. The predominant classes are Jats and Brahmans, who together constitute nearly one half of the total population. At the beginning of the century, Raja Bhagavant Sinh of Mursan was one of the largest landed proprietors ; but the estate in SaMabad held by the present Raja consists only of the villages of Bhurka, Jhagarari? and Nagara Ghariba, which yield an annual income of Rs. 3,000, Another local magnate of great importance at the same period was also a Jat by caste, Th&kur Kushal Sinh, the brother-in-law of Durjan Sal, the usurper of the throne of Bharat-pur, His estates, some 10 or 11.villages lying round about Mahrara, now on the line of Bailway, were all confiscated at the close of the war, when a settlement was made with the former proprietors and some of the hereditary cultivators. At present the principal people in the pargana are the Muhammadan family seated at the town of Sa'dab&d, at whose head is the Thakurani Hakim-nn-Nissa, the widow of Kunwar Husain Ali Khan. (See page 20). The remaining large landowners are of a different stamp, being nouveau& riches j who have acquired whatever wealth they possess within the last few years by the practice of trad© and usury. The most prominent members of this class are—l*i, Sri Mm, Botra, son of Madari Lai, Brahman, of Salai~pnr, who returns his net income at Rs. 15,500, derived from shares in 20 different villages; %nd9 Mittra Sen, a Baniya of Hathras, who has an income of Rs. 12,125, arising from lands in Mirhavali, Samad-pnr, and four other places; and &rd, Thakor Das and Sita Ram, the sons of Jay Gopal, Dhiisar, who enjoy an income of Rs 12,116, from Jatoi, Kupa, Nagara Dali and shares in 11 other villages. Most of the indigo factories are.branches of the Chotua concern, a firm which has its head-quarters near Sonai, in the Hathras pargana. Mr. John O'Brien Saundersj of the Englishman, was the senior partner: lie died in 1879.